Metallic implants-scaffolds for dental and orthopedic application

Referencia Apresentador Autores
Leszek Adam Dobrzanski Dobrzanski, L.A.(Silesian University of Technology); Special focus is laid in this paper on the possible use of additive manufacturing technologies, mainly Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)/ Melting (SLM) and the special micro and nanocomposite metallic materials, which can be used for obtaining the new original porous implant-scaffolds and innovative generation of biological-engineering composite materials designed mainly for use in regenerative medicine and regenerative dentistry. This group of developments, forming part of the evaluated accomplishment, includes hybrid additive technologies of structure and properties formation of newly created metal porous materials with the average size of micropores of 100-600 nm using SLS/ SLM of titanium and TiAl6V4 alloy combined with chemical treatment, by surface etching, in mixtures of HF + H2O (preferably by 8 min) or HCl + H2SO4 (preferably by 6 min at 100°C) of porous skeletons and the elaboration of innovative manufacturing technologies of composite materials by depositing an internal surface of micropores, e.g. with TiO2+TiN+Ti2N+?Ti(N), natural protein, polysacharide and synthetic polymers, hydroxyapatite (HA), composite materials: collagen + hydroxyapatite CaP-polymer tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-polycaprolactone (PCL), hydroxyapatite HA/poly(ester-urethane)(PU), by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method or by methods of immersion, pressing, sol-gel method and by infiltration in case of creating microskeleton non-porous composite material. Detailed technologies were established, and mechanical properties were examined in detail of the so manufactured microporous materials, microporous composite materials and micro-skeleton composite materials. The investigations carried out formed the basis for elaborating constructional assumptions, methodology of constructional, material and technology design of several types of medical devices which are to be applied in regenerative medicine, regenerative dentistry and implantology. Completely innovative and patent protected implant-scaffolds were developed, as devices used for implantation to replace the bone pieces removed surgically due to a disease, usually cancerous disorders or inflammatory conditions. An implant-scaffold is comprised of a solid zone, typical for the implants used to date, and a porous hybrid zone fulfilling the functions of scaffolds, with the size of micropores most often within the range of 100-600 µm and a varied shape. Implant-scaffold integration with joint implants is possible, and also deposition of bioactive material onto the surface of micropores forming the porous zone, with a thin layer of up to 500 µm thick. The porous zone in an implant-scaffold ensures appropriate osteosynthesis of bone implants with bone stumps or, respectively, in the case of a structure integrated with joint implants with bone elements left after the removal of joints, enables the living tissue to outgrow across the porous zone after implantation, creating a durable and firm joint of an implant with a living tissue. A manufacturing method of a bone implant-scaffold is established on the basis of the data acquired using medical imaging methods, e.g. computer tomography, according to the size and shape of a patient’s bone loss, e.g. the size and shape of a bone loss in the forearm bone. A virtual model prepared in the format, e.g. STL, by means of appropriate software, e.g. AutoFab, forms a basis for establishing a virtual technological model of an implant-scaffold, i.e. an implant which, in the place of connection with bone stumps, features a porous zone designed with a method of repeatable unit cells. The so developed virtual implant-scaffold model is a basis for production a ready real bone implant-scaffold. In case of personalised implant-scaffolds, their shape is adjusted to the shape and size of a patient’s bone loss located in different locations in a human body. Analogous is the manufacturing method of other implant-scaffolds and prostheses, in particular in regenerative dentistry and regenerative craniofacial surgery, including personalised dental implant-scaffolds employed for treating tooth and bone losses in the area of a dental or craniofacial system. A rigid biological-engineering composite, TiAl6V4 titanium alloy or pristine titanium-air, is used for losses created on the surface of a bone in the form of a new biologically active generation of plate implant prostheses. A composite is fabricated by selective laser sintering, ensuring continuous porosity with the dimensions, preferably, of 300-800 nm, and air acts as a matrix. A reinforcing skeleton made of selectively sintered TiAl6V4 titanium allot powder or pristine titanium is a carrier of natural biologically active cells, cultured on its surface with tissue engineering methods, and may also notably act as a carrier of medicines, e.g. anti-inflammatory medicines or bactericidal agents, e.g. silver. Composite biological-engineering devices may be used for regeneration, among others, of bone losses.
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